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Dévény method (DSGM)

This method of motor rehabilitation is named after Anna Dévény, a physiotherapist and rhythmic gymnastics trainer. Its exact name is Dévény Special Manual Technique & Gymnastics Method (DSGM).

DSGM I. Special Manual Technique

The method is a unique treatment procedure for overcoming obstacles to movement, which, in addition to restoring the physiological position of the muscles and releasing abnormal contractures, also solves the stimulation of the nervous system. The effect and results will be much better if treatment is started early in life (in the first month), when it can even prevent the formation of mobility problems. Treatments started at the age of 1-2 years can still bring improvement, but unfortunately, the results of an early start cannot be reached. This is why it is crucial to begin treatment as soon as possible.  

Whom does this method help?

  • infants with breastfeeding difficulties
  • infants suffering from the effect of oxygen deficiency
  • babies born with signs of abnormal intrauterine posture
  • babies with orthopedic diseases, e.g. clubfoot, oblique posture
  • infants with traumatology injuries
  • infants with other disabilities, regardless of their origin

DSMG II. Analytic Gymnastics

Motion correction in this case happens in group settings.

Children over 3-4 years of age and adults learn together, practicing exercises of applied rhythmic gymnastics in groups, accompanied with music.

Whom does it help?

  • children with reduced mobility (e.g. due to oxygen deficiency)
  • children with coordination problems, attention and learning difficulties
  • young people and adults with orthopedic problems (slouching, scoliosis, hip dysplasia
  • healthy children and adults

Katona method

The method developed by Professor Katona, called neurorehabilitation, is a therapy for abnormal nervous system development. Neurorehabilitation is based on the repetition of certain movement patterns still present in babies, and it activates the young nervous system’s automatic sensorimotor patterns.

Whom does this method help?

  • Premature babies, low birthweight and weak babies, or babies where there was a risky complication during birth (oxygen deficiency, bleeding or inflammation, etc.) are referred by the hospital to a neuro-developmental check-up.
  • The ideal time for starting the therapy is 3 months of age.

Pető method

András Pető was a doctor and an educator. He developed his conductive education system in 1945, after World War II. Uniquely, conductive education is free for Hungarian children whether they commute or are boarding in one of the facilities. Pető Institute trains conductors who use the Pető method in institutions both in Hungary and around the world.  The term conductive is of a Latin origin, meaning “leading to”. At the Pető Institute, children are taught and encouraged to perform certain movements with as little outside help as possible. Parents are also involved in the process and are persuaded to practice regularly at home. Conductive education is a long, time-consuming process that requires complex collaboration. One of the most important goal – regardless of age – is to teach learning, i.e. to develop learning skills. The Pető Institute is located in Budapest, in Districts XI. and XII.

Whom does this method help?

  • People with mobility impairments due to a disease of the central nervous system.

Bobath method

The method was developed by Berta (physiotherapist) and Karel (neurologist) Bobath, and is used around the world. It is a therapeutic procedure for paralyses of neurological origin. The Bobath method introduced the so-called reflex-inhibition positions, to normalize muscle tone and bring reflexes under inhibition. The treatment is thus an endless alternation of the therapist’s actions and the child’s reactions. The original Bobath method has been modified by the progress in theory and practice, and it was further developed based on existing observations. The so-called NDT method has been developed by therapists within the Neurodevelopmental Treatment Association (NDTA) as a new, individual motion therapy. 

Whom does this method help?

  • People with mobility impairments due to a disease of the central nervous system.

Vojta therapy

Vaclav Vojta (1917-2000), Czech professor, neurologist, developer of the Vojta method.

He developed the reflex-locomotion Vojta therapy based on his experience in the Munich Children’s Clinique in the mid-1950s. The therapy directly effects the brain processes controlling motion and posture. During therapy, the torso and limbs are stimulated while in a supine, stomach or side position, which triggers the ideal locomotion movement patterns. Pressure applied to a specific joint achieves the desired muscle activity, which in turn helps self-perception and spatial awareness, and has a beneficial effect on digestion and blood circulation. Effective exercises chosen by the therapist can be taught, and should be performed by parents at home. In order to achieve the best results, the Vojta physiotherapy exercises should be repeated three-four times daily.

When does this method help?

  • in case of mobility disorders
  • in case of nervous system disorders
  • in case of unilateral paralyses
  • it is used to prevent and cure scoliosis


The goal of PSMT is to systematize, normalize and coordinate the subconscious (under cerebral cortex) processes of the nervous system. Before a session begins, each child is subjected to a condition assessment examining several areas:  nervous system, mobility, tactile area, body image and rhythm. After evaluating the results, the conductor/teacher creates an individualized development plan that parents must regularly practice with their child at home in order to be successful. This method can be used with children under 3 years of age.

Whom does this method help?

Children with:

  • immature nervous system
  • delayed or too rapid motor development
  • delayed speech development
  • weak coordination skills and balance
  • behavioral problems
  • attention difficulties
  • controllability and cooperation problems


The HRG method was developed by Katalin Lakatos, and has been a trademarked Hungarian rehabilitation method since 1994. The application of the HRG method is preceded by a thorough sensorimotor examination, which helps determine the maturity of the child’s nervous system in percentages. Furthermore, the missing and existing skills and partial abilities also become known. The various movements are easier to perform in water than on land. This aquatic therapy starts with getting the child used to water, which in essence is an adaptation process. The goal is for the child to love this new medium, to accept the teacher and the educational situation, to establish cooperation, to get to know the other group members and to integrate into the group. The aquatic exercises prepare for subsequent swimming, and have a positive effect on the child’s motor and sensory abilities.      

Whom does this method help?

Children with:

  • delayed speech and motor development
  • unusual intellectual development
  • attention deficit disorder
  • emotional, attachment and integration problems


Pfaffenrot’s synergetic reflex therapy (SRT) was developed in the 1970s by dr. Waldemar Pfaffenrot, a German orthopedic and rehabilitation specialist of Russian origin. The more than a 100 different poises are basically a therapeutic procedure for movement disorders of nervous origin, based on manual medicine. During therapy myofascial technique, acupressure, reflex zone treatment, mobilization, and stretching/toning are used. The treatment is painless, and it prepares and complements active gymnastic exercises. It is recommended to be used in 5-10 day intensive blocks, repeated 3-5 times a year.

Whom does this method help?

Children with:

  • cerebral palsy (paralyses originating in the brain)
  • delayed motor development
  • muscle tone distribution disorder
  • torticollis (oblique neck position), oblique torso
  • spastic (stiff) or hypotonic (floppy) muscles
  • attention deficit disorder, hyperactivity (ADHD)
  • increased salivation, suckling, chewing and swallowing difficulties
  • delayed speech development
  • various syndromes
  • stroke
  • post-traumatic conditions



Sensory Integration Therapy was published in 1972 by Anna Jean Ayres, a Californian brain researcher and psychologist. It is a process that offers a wide range of playful activities and is pleasing to the child. Its devices resemble the world of playgrounds or circuses: giant balls, rolling cylinders, hammocks, rotating and balancing plates, planks and swings. All toys that provide stimuli for balance and tactile perception. Children are free to choose what they want to play with and for how long, and this complete freedom brings to the surface unconscious thoughts, thus making it a self-healing process.

Whom does this method help?

Children with:

  • attention deficit disorder
  • hyperactivity
  • emotional problems
  • intellectual problems
  • hypersensitivity to touch, certain motions, certain visual stimuli, sounds and taste
  • the exact opposite of the above, i.e. when these experiences are never enough and the child is constantly looking for them: rocking back and forth, hitting objects intentionally, even if it is painful for them
  • difficulty with motor coordination: learning new forms of movement can be just as difficult as balancing in everyday situations
  • too fast or too slow movements
  • difficulty controlling their behavior: they jump into a new task too quickly and without planning, have difficulty adapting to new situations, become aggressive or desperate too quickly if they find a task complicated, or they won’t even start it, thus their wider environment sees them as lazy, unmotivated.

The above difficulties are not directly related to intellectual ability. Therefore, they can appear in a child with an intact intellect just as much as in one with a mild degree of learning and intellectual impairment. They might be more pronounced in autistic children.  


Foundation therapy helps the nervous system via complex motor development, after which the child will reach a very high level of dexterity.

The series of exercises developed by Dr. Éva Marton-Dévényi also affect the areas of the brain responsible for speech function (reading, writing). During therapy, the basic exercises are supplemented with developmental pedagogical methods (time, space, memory, hearing and speech perception improvements, etc.), making it a whole system. This therapy is a long and intense therapy, and is very effective at 5-16 years of age.

When does this method help?

In cases of:

  • delayed and/or problematic, impaired speech development
  • pronunciation problems, e.g. lisp
  • dyslexia, difficulties reading and/or writing
  • overactive children, or children with attention disorders who are suffering from brain damage caused by oxygen deficiency
  • preschoolers lagging in development and maturation
  • children with mild intellectual disabilities
  • any child who suffers from clumsiness or awkward mobility, whatever the cause

Delacato therapy

According to Carl Henry Delacato, a neurologist living and working in Philadelphia USA, the development of motion is closely linked to the maturation of the nervous system. If any stage of motor development is missed, or is not practiced well enough, the associated sensory and control centers do not develop or differentiate properly. The insufficient functioning of several areas may lead to learning difficulties, behavioral problems and disorders, because it is through motion that nerve pathways are stabilized and the brain’s systems develop. The essence of Delacato’s therapy is making possible for children to relive the motoric stages of their infancy. This in turn makes it possible for the areas lagging behind to close the gap and make up for the deficit. If a child is not able to move independently, several adults are there to move his/her head and limbs. It is recommended for children aged 4-10 years.


Whom does this method help?

Children with:

  • lack of language skills even in their mother tongue
  • nervous system immaturity
  • delayed motor coordination
  • delayed and/or problematic, impaired speech development
  • dyslexia, dysgraphia
  • overactive children, or children with attention disorders who are suffering from brain damage caused by oxygen deficiency
  • preschoolers lagging in development and maturation
  • children with mild intellectual disabilities
  • any child who suffers from clumsiness or awkward mobility, whatever the cause
  • delayed choosing of hand dominance


This program was developed by the Institute of Neuro-Physiological Psychology (INPP) in Chester, England, under the leadership of Dr. Peter Blythe. The exercise program includes a series of skill-enhancing motions based on a baby’s natural movement patterns, and it is supposed to be practiced daily. It is different from other sensorimotor methods in that these exercises reach as deep as possible, i.e. they develop the earliest stages of the sense of equilibrium first. It can be performed both individually and in groups.

In the framework of individual development, all stages of development from the intrauterine period through birth to crawling are repeated, and all foundational motions are stabilized, but this time in the correct order. Parents have to practice these exercises every day at home in the form of a “guided home-training”, which is under a regular, approx. 8-week control of the  INPP development specialist. In any case, the expected norm is a maximum 5-7 minute, monotonously repeated, slow-motion-like practice every day, performed very accurately and in complete silence.  

Group training is more focused on the postpartum stage and can last for approximately 9-12 months. It is performed on every school day in kindergarten or in school under the guidance of a qualified professional. The success of the method lies in the correct compilation of the exercises, the accuracy of their execution, and persistent, regular practice. Although results are amazingly impressive, the INPP method is not a miracle cure. It organizes the foundations on which further learning and development can be built much more efficiently.

Whom does this method help?   

Children with:

  • learning difficulties
  • behavioral problems
  • developmental coordination disorder (DCD)
  • attention deficit disorder (ADD)
  • attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)

Reflex exercises

An infant initially expresses himself/herself with reflex-driven, instinctive movements. They learn and get to know the world through motion. As their mobility develops so does their intellect, and they will be able to do more and more. Infants optimally they develop their nervous system via simple motions (e.g. lifting of the head, creeping-crawling, etc.), and through this they affect their intellectual abilities. If any part of the above mentioned process is missed or is performed and practiced incorrectly or insufficiently, it can result in various problems that affect – among other things – the child’s integration into communities, his/her learning abilities and behavior.   

The little ones feel like they have been dropped into a playful day-care center, not even realizing that they are actually “working hard” at developing their intellect, skills, speech and social relationships. Special emphasis is placed on ensuring that children have a sense of success during the sessions, and gain a healthy self-confidence. Classes are recommended from the age of 2.5 years to adolescence.

What do reflex exercises develop?

  • depth perception
  • balance
  • attention
  • motor coordination, both large and fine movements
  • sense of rhythm
  • self-confidence
  • brings baby reflexes under inhibition

Smarts exercises

Gymnastic exercises that help the maturation of the nervous system and inhibit primitive reflexes.

When does this help?

In situations where:

  • the inhibition of primitive reflexes has not been completed by age 3 and a half, postural reflexes have not developed
  • the child has exaggerated fright reactions
  • motion is not coordinated, has difficulty coordinating the movements of two hands / two legs, detaching is difficult
  • the child is unsteady, has a bad sense of balance, falls often
  • some stages of motor development were missed (had difficulty rolling over or only rolled to one side, didn’t crawl, stood up very fast)
  • the child has difficulty with spatial orientation, mixes up directions
  • s/he struggles with attention, has difficulty focusing for longer periods
  • the child has difficulty with integration and socialization.


Hippotherapy is a complex therapy. On the one hand, it stimulates the nervous system through movement impulses of the horse. On the other hand, it exercises the sensory pathways (e.g. sight, hearing, smell, touch, deep sensing). It also helps psychomotor areas (e.g. success in motion, self-confidence, alive and accepting partner). Despite the complexity of hippotherapy, complementary therapies are needed. It can effectively be linked to speech therapy, ergotherapy, hydrotherapy, and can greatly increase the effectiveness of physiotherapy treatments. The hippotherapist must have equestrian training, as s/he is responsible for the therapy and for safety, and has to be guiding and possibly disciplining the horse during sessions. S/he has to be familiar with the movements of the horse, their effect and possible reactions from the patient, and must be able to influence and change it if necessary, as this is the therapy.

What does hippotherapy improve?

  • head and trunk control
  • differentiation of muscle function
  • breaks down pathological synergisms
  • balance during sitting
  • posture correction
  • balance perception, development of motor coordination and overall motion
  • due to its emotional impact, it is a strong motivational factor towards an active lifestyle and the strenghtening of willpower.


Subaqua gymnastics – a special method of hydrotherapy – is physiotherapy in water. Moving under water usually requires less strength, but does require continuous balance while providing a special tactile, acoustic and visual experience. Patients can move in the water like they can nowhere else. Due to buoyancy, we are able to float; the water aids the upward motion of the body and limbs. The hydrostatic pressure and the fluid resistance helps to maintain static positions and reduces the fear of falling. Water allows a typical form of motion that is not possible anywhere else.

Who/when is sub-aqua gymnastics recommended for?

  • people with reduced mobility
  • for the visually impaired
  • for the hearing impaired
  • people with learning disabilities
  • people with mental disabilities
  • people with severe abnormalities
  • people with mental health problems
  • people with autism spectrum disorder
  • in case of hyperactivity
  • in case of learning disabilities
  • in case of behavioral problems
  • people with posture problems